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                  Cadmium Tungstate Scintillation Crystal

                  Cadmium tungstate (CdWO4, CWO) single crystal is an important scintillation materials applied in the radiation detection technology, especially for security checking , industrial CT and medical imaging. Large-size CWO single crystals with high quality were grown successfully by vertical Bridgman process in our company in recent years. CWO single crystal has a density as high as 7.9 g/cm-3 without any deliquescence. Under high-energy rays radiation such as X-rays or γ-rays, the crystal exhibits the luminescence output with a central wavelength of 470 nm. The crystal possesses a series of scintillation properties such as a relative light yield 2~3 times of BGO crystal, a low afterglow only 10-2 grade relative to CsI(Tl) crystal and a γ-ray radiation hardness of 107 rad. Our company provide the mass products of CWO wafers and array elements, which can meet the technical requirements for radiation detection devices.


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                  Tab.  Materials properties of CWO single crystal

                                                                                                   

                  Crystal orientation

                  <100>,<010>

                  Crystal structure

                  Monoclinic system,Space group P2/c

                  Crystal lattice

                  a = 5.029?,b = 5.859?,c = 5.074 ?;α = γ = 90o,β = 91.47o 

                  Melting point

                  1276oC

                  Density

                  7.90g/cm3

                  Thermal expansion coefficient

                  6.39×10-6 /K(<100>),1.09 × 10-5 /K(<010>)

                  Refractive index

                  2.3

                  Hardness

                  4.5 Mohs

                  Cleavage

                  (010)

                  Colour

                  Nearly colorless to pale yellowish brown 

                  Deliquescence

                  None

                  Central wavelength of luminescence

                  470 nm

                  Relative light yield index

                  20-30   (NaI(Tl) crystal with a light yield

                   index 100 is used as reference)

                  Absolute light yield

                  2760 ± 50 p.e /MeV

                  Energy resolution

                  7.8-13%

                  Luminescence decay time

                  1.3 μs (36%, fast),11.5 μs (64%, slow) 

                  Afterglow

                  less than 0.04%@3 ms

                  γ-ray radiation hardness

                  107 rad




                   

                  Figures:

                                                 

                                           

                                       Fig. 1  Ultroviolet-visible transmission spectra                                       Fig.2  X-ray stimulated luminescence spectra


                                               

                                        

                                    Fig. 3 Energy spectrum and light yield of CWO                      Fig. 4  Luminescence decay time of CWO wafer under UV excitation

                                                  wafer under γ-ray excitation


                                                 

                                  

                                       Fig. 5  Afterglow of CWO crystal less than 0.04%@3ms          Fig.6  Relative light yield uniformity of crystal array elements

                                                  under γ-ray excitation  which only 10-2 grade 

                                                  relative to CsI(Tl) crystal




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